Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Implementation model

Bosco Verticale

A short description of the NBS project

Bosco Verticale is a model for a sustainable residential building, a project for metropolitan reforestation contributing to the regeneration of the environment and urban 1 without the implication of expanding the city upon the territory. The first example of the Bosco Verticale has been designed by Stefano Boeri Studio and realized in Milan, consisting of two residential towers of 110 and 76 m height, hosting 800 trees (each measuring 3, 6 or 9 meters), 4.500 shrubs and 15.000 plants distributed according to the sun exposure of the facade. In amount of trees, each Bosco Verticale equals an area of 20.000sqm of forest. The vegetal system of the Bosco Verticale provides several benefits: a) Biological habitats. Bosco Verticale increases 1. It helps to set up an urban ecosystem where a different kind of vegetation creates a vertical environment which can also be colonized by birds and insects, and therefore becomes both a magnet for and a symbol of the spontaneous re-colonization of the city by vegetation and by animal life. b) Mitigations. Bosco Verticale helps to build a micro-climate and to filter dust particles which are present in the urban environment. The diversity of the plants helps to create humidity and absorbs CO2 and dust, produces oxygen, protects people and houses from harmful sun rays and from acoustic pollution. c) Anti-sprawl. Bosco Verticale is an anti-sprawl measure which aims to control and reduce urban expansion. If we think of them in terms of urban densification, each tower of the Bosco Verticale is equivalent to an area of urban sprawl of family houses and buildings of up to 50.000sqm. Trees are a key element in understanding architectural projects and garden systems. In this case the choice of the types of trees was made to fit their positioning on the facades and by height, and it took two years to finalize it, alongside a group of botanists. The plants used in this project will be grown specifically for this purpose and will be pre-cultivated. Over this period these plants can slowly get used to the conditions they will find on the building. d) Ecology billboards. Bosco Verticale is a landmark in the city which is able to depict new kinds of variable landscapes changing their look over seasons, depending on the types of plants involved. The Bosco Verticale will offer a changing view of the metropolitan city below. e) Management. The management of the tree pots is under building regulation, as well as the upkeep of the greenery and the number of plants for each pot. f) Irrigation. In order to understand the need for water, the plan for these buildings took into account the distribution of plants across the various floors and their positioning.

NBS Implementation context
Location Italy, Milan, Porta Nuova District (Italy)
Status Project delivered (2009-2014)
Description of the NBS
NBS Scale object (building, etc.)
NBS Impacts scale • Object (building) • Neighbourhood • City
Urban density/ Soil consumption High (dense city center, etc.)
Combined with other(s) environmental friendly solution(s)?
if other
NBS Typology
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NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 1
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 1
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
Stakeholder and Governance
Who Started this initiative? Market • Private sector (Hines Italia SGR SpA)
Contracting Authority
Project manager (leader and main partners): entities names, and know-how involved
Who (else) was involved in the project ? (Inhabitants, local association, etc.)
More detail on the process and the role of the different stakeholders (How did it happen?)
OPTIONAL Considering the actual impacts, who are the primary beneficiaries of the project.
Cluster Governance Model Description
Global Estimated cost of the project > 5M€ (Above €65.000.000)
Cluster Private investors (Coima XXI, Domomedia Gruppo Milano Assicurazioni, Hines European Development Fund, TIAA-CREF (Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association - College Retirement Equities Fund)
Description of the financing mechanism -
Business Model
Class Type Description
The creation of different projects like the Boeri’s Bosco Verticale in a city can set up a network of environmental corridors giving life to urban parks, bringing together the green space of avenues and gardens and interweaving various spaces of spontaneous vegetation growth. Furthermore, it is possible to upscale and replicate the same idea: Nanjing Bosco Verticale Nanjing Green Towers will be the first Bosco Verticale built in Asia.
Temporal Factor
Expected time for the NBS to be fully effective after its implementation
Expected life time of the intervention
Already feedbacks on the project? In case, the project has already been adapted to new requisites, please explain the modifications brought
Success and limiting factors
Process Enablers
Class Subclass Type Description
Process Inhibitors
Class Subclass Type Description
What makes this project a pioneer?
Brief description of the innovativeness
Has the project received a prize, an award?
Has the project received a media coverage? (in reviews, in press, etc.)
IM Keywords