Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Implementation model

Green ventilation corridors in Stuttgart

A short description of the NBS project

Stuttgart’s location in a valley basin, its mild climate, low wind speeds, industrial activity and high volume of traffic has made it susceptible to poor air quality. In order to facilitate air exchange in the city - thereby enhancing the potential for cool air flow from the hills towards the urban areas on the valley floor - development on the valley slopes permitted to prevent air from moving through the city. So, based on the previous work in this area carried out by the City of Stuttgart since the 1980s and the in-house urban climatology department (in existence in the City of Stuttgart since 1938), a Climate Atlas was developed for the Stuttgart region in 2008, presenting the distribution of temperature and cold air flows according to the city’s topography and land use. Based on this information, a number of planning and zoning regulations are recommended that also aim to preserve and increase open space in densely built-up areas. The Atlas distinguishes eight categories of areas in this manner, and for each of them different planning measures and recommendations are provided. In addition to responding to local climate characteristics, the following principles form the basis for the planning recommendations included in the “Climate Booklet for Urban Development Online – Städtebauliche Klimafibel Online”: 1) vegetation should be placed to surround developments and larger, connected green spaces should be created or maintained throughout developed areas to facilitate air exchange; 2) valleys serve as air delivery corridors and should not be developed; 3) hillsides should remain undeveloped, especially when development exists in valleys, since intensive cold- and fresh-air transport occurs here; 4) saddle-like topographies serve as air induction corridors and should not be developed; 5) urban sprawl is to be avoided; 6) all trees growing in the urban core with a trunk circumference of more than 80 cm at height of 1m are protected with a tree preservation order. As a result of the implementation of the recommendations included in the Climate Atlas and Climate Booklet, over 39% of Stuttgart’s surface area has been put under the protection of nature conservation orders. As a result of greening actions, greenery covers more than 60% of the city.

NBS Implementation context
Location Germany, Stuttgart (Germany)
Status Ongoing (since 2012)
Description of the NBS
NBS Scale city
NBS Impacts scale • Neighbourhood • City • Regional
Urban density/ Soil consumption High (dense city center, etc.)
Combined with other(s) environmental friendly solution(s)?
if other
NBS Typology
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NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
Stakeholder and Governance
Who Started this initiative? Governments • Regional / national government • Local government/municipality
Contracting Authority
Project manager (leader and main partners): entities names, and know-how involved
Who (else) was involved in the project ? (Inhabitants, local association, etc.)
More detail on the process and the role of the different stakeholders (How did it happen?)
OPTIONAL Considering the actual impacts, who are the primary beneficiaries of the project.
Cluster Governance Model Description
cluster1_traditional_public_administrationHierarchical_governanceThe initiative was funded by the City of Stuttgart and the Verband Region Stuttgart. The funds are necessary to generate climatic data around which the Climate Atlas is produced.
Global Estimated cost of the project -
Cluster cluster1_public_financing
FM Public financing
Description of the financing mechanism The initiative was funded by the City of Stuttgart and the Verband Region Stuttgart. The funds are necessary to generate climatic data around which the Climate Atlas is produced.
Business Model
Class Type Description
Temporal Factor
Expected time for the NBS to be fully effective after its implementation
Expected life time of the intervention
Already feedbacks on the project? In case, the project has already been adapted to new requisites, please explain the modifications brought
Success and limiting factors
Process Enablers
Class Subclass Type Description
Knowledge_driversInformation accessibility and sharing • Knowledge platforms The following factors are highlighted: • Compilation of detailed information about the area’s topography, climate and land use allows for precise planning for different areas, which together aim to improve air quality and mitigate the urban heat island effect. • The case demonstrates the advantages to a municipality of having in-house climatic research capacity to provide concrete knowledge of local conditions and remedies, as opposed to relying on an understanding derived from general principles. Cumulatively, over several decades, the city has used its planning and landscaping powers to engineer an entire system of urban air circulation. • Constructive use of existing regulations (e.g. the German Building Code) provides a mandate for the implementation of planning recommendations relating to local climate. • Close collaboration between the Office for Environmental Protection (analysis of information, provision of recommendations) and the City Planning and Renewal team means that the recommended green infrastructure solutions are being implemented through spatial planning and development control.
Governance_driversProcess efficiencies • Collaboration
Process Inhibitors
Class Subclass Type Description
What makes this project a pioneer?
Brief description of the innovativeness
Has the project received a prize, an award?
Has the project received a media coverage? (in reviews, in press, etc.)
IM Keywords