Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Urban Forest

UK National Forest

A short description of the NSB

The National Forest idea was conceived in the Government policy document ïForestry in the CountrysideÍ published in 1987. The concept was to create a vast, new forest for the nation in lowland Britain that demonstrated the principles of multi-purpose forestry and improved an area badly scarred by past mineral workings. Further, the aim was to demonstrate in lowland Britain that a large scale, attractive forest could be created, blending commercial forestry with ecological, landscape and public benefit. Economic regeneration was to come from the restoration of mining sites and the future of agriculture was to be supported through opportunities for rural diversification. Commercial forestry was therefore blended with a range of additional objectives and benefits including economic regeneration, landscape and ecological enhancement, rural diversification and community engagement, and creation of a new recreational and tourism resource. The Forest area spans 518 km2, representing an increase from 6% to nearly 19% since 1990.

NBS Implementation context
Location Britain
Status (from - to) Ongoing (Since 1990s)
NBS Scale Regional
NBS Impacts scale Regional
Urban density/ Soil consumption Low (suburb at the limit with rural areas, etc.)
NBS Typology

NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
NBS Stakeholders & Governance

Initial actors (Leaders) Governments National government
Involved actors Governments Regional / national government Local government/municipality Semi-government organizations / institutions, Community Citizens, Market Private sector
Ecological scale Regional scale green infrastructure
Governance model CLUSTER 2: New Public Management Public_private partnership (PPP)
NBS Financial aspects

Global (estimated) cost of the project 210M€
Financing mechanism CLUSTER 1: Public financing EAFRD
NBS Business Models Archetype
Technological Non applicable
Social Adopt a stewardship roleEncourage sufficiency
Organisational Re-purpose the business for society/environment
NBS Success and limiting factors
Process enablers
Knowledge Collaboration Co-creation, Awareness Climate Change
Governance Process efficiencies Collaboration, Self- governance Grassroots innovations and transition initiatives
Economy De-risking Sharing risks
Process inibitors
Knowledge -
Governance -
Economy Budget constraints • NBS not a priority
IM Keywords
  • Public–private partnership (PPP)

  • Regional scale green infrastructure

  • Public financing


  • Adopt a stewardship role

  • Encourage sufficiency

  • Re-purpose the business for society/environment

References Naumann S., McKenna D., Timo K., Mav P. and Matt R. (2011). Design, implementation and cost elements of Green Infrastructure projects. Final report to the European Commission, DG Environment, Contract no. 070307/2010/577182/ETU/F.1, Ecologic institute and GHK Consulting