Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Structure associate to urban networks

Barcelona trees tempering the Mediterranean city climate

A short description of the NSB

The “Trees for living. Barcelona Tree Master Plan 2017-37” (hereafter “Tree Master Plan”), currently being drafted, will become the strategic document giving Barcelona City Council guidance for future actions in municipal planning, management and conservation of the arboreal city. With the Green Infrastructure and Biodiversity Plan 2020 (BGIBP) - which is the “umbrella” strategic plan for actions related to green infrastructure and biodiversity - and the Trees Master Plan, the city has the vision to create a well-managed, healthy and biodiverse woodland aiming to: connect to both the urban and natural environment, be resilient and adapted to climate change, provide benefits to urban people and be appreciated for its value. According to the Plan vision trees are considered a fundamental part of the green infrastructure of Barcelona, a natural resource that helps enjoying a healthier life in the city. Trees conserve and increase urban biodiversity, connect people with nature, provide social and environmental services (e.g. related to health, habitability, landscape, etc.) to current population and future generations. The conservation of this green heritage is promoted by the Barcelona City Council with the involvement of everyone, both public and private organizations and citizens.

NBS Implementation context
Location Europe, Spain, Barcelona
Status (from - to) Ongoing (2012-2020)
NBS Scale Neighbourhood City
NBS Impacts scale City
Urban density/ Soil consumption High (dense city center)
NBS Typology

NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
NBS Stakeholders & Governance

The city government is currently promoting a new maintenance culture for the city’s greenery, one that is more sustainable and offers more benefits for the community and specific sectors sensitive to chemical products.

Initial actors (Leaders) Governments Local government/municipality
Involved actors Governments -, Community Citizens, Market -
Ecological scale Local scale green area City scale green networks
Governance model CLUSTER 5: Network Governance Adaptive governance
NBS Financial aspects

Global (estimated) cost of the project 9.6 million euros/year
Financing mechanism CLUSTER 1: Public financing
NBS Business Models Archetype
Technological Substitute with renewable and natural processes
Social Encourage sufficiencyAdopting a stewardship roleEncourage sufficiency
Organisational Develop scale-up solutions
NBS Success and limiting factors
Process enablers
Knowledge Generation of evidence Research on benefits Research on cost effectiveness,Collaboration Networks, Awareness Climate Change Ecological memory
Governance Process efficiencies Action- thinking approach, Self- governance Grassroots innovations and transition initiatives, Co-creation and participation Cross sectorial spaces and partnerships Co-production
Economy Government support Removal of administrative barriers Public-private partnerships, Create conditions for new business models and finance schemes
Process inibitors
Knowledge -
Governance -
Economy Perception of the benefits Under appreciation of non-economic benefits
IM Keywords
  • Adaptive governance

  • Local scale green area

  • City scale green networks

  • Public financing

  • Substitute with renewable and natural processes

  • Encourage sufficiency

  • Develop scale-up solutions

References EEA Study “Examples and case studies of synergies between adaptation and mitigation and between incremental and transitional approaches in urban areas”; original source: Barcelona City Council