Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Public urban green spaces

European Economic Area grants for implementing Climate Adaptation measures in Bratislava

A short description of the NSB

In Bratislava, climate change will be felt particularly in the expected rise in average temperature, more heat waves, and long periods of drought on the one hand, and more extreme rainfall, resulting in an increased risk of local floods. Therefore, the City of Bratislava has prepared and approved a strategy on adaptation to climate change trough an Adaptation Action Plan. This plan promoted delivery of climate change adaptation through different types of adaptation measures (with special focus on heat and rainwater management) and cooperation among decision-makers, planners, the private sector and local communities. The main target groups are the inhabitants of Bratislava city, especially the vulnerable groups (elderly people and children). Adaptation measures addressed the creation of more green spaces and permeable surfaces in a number of different sub-projects throughout the city. For all of the sub-projects the city of Bratislava organized the process towards implementation (planning, negotiating with the funding organization, design). The main sub-projects are: Rehabilitation of a square (Nàmestie hrani_iarov) in the city district of Petr_alka of the city of Bratislava. On a square of about 1ha the pavement are replaced by grass areas, trees and flower beds. A water capturing and irrigation system ensures resilience to drought. The project is implemented by the city district of Petr_alka. A green roof of 1,000sqm size on a care home for elderly people owned by the city of Bratislava. The main function is buffering the discharge of excess rainwater. On two important squares in the city centre, trees have been planted to provide shade on hot days. This very visible result has been realized after very long negotiations with many departments in the city, overcoming arguments on the historic character of the squares, archaeological issues, etc. The project was implemented by the city. Two tree-lined avenues have been realized providing cool corridors that connect important big roads in the old town. The project was implemented by the city. In Svoradova street, in an area with previously no green public spaces, a 1.000sqm park are realized. It contains a variety of water retention measures (sustainable drainage systems and underground rain water storage tanks) implemented by the Old town district. Nov_ Mesto district was historically an industrialized area with food processing factories and chemical industry. Today the brownfields are being transformed into apartment houses. The former velodrome (about 3ha) is revitalized and transformed into a multifunctional leisure area and a new green space for the inhabitants is created. The newly developed areas contain various recreational elements for the inhabitants and their children, including playgrounds and visible water flows. In the Bratislava Forest Park (a 19th century designed landscape park) existing water reservoirs of one of the very few remaining streams flowing down from the Male Karpaty mountain range are revitalized. These are important from the point of view of fire protection of the forests and surrounding areas, but they also support local biodiversity and can take-up excess rain water in times of heavy rainfall which would otherwise flow into the city.The project ïBratislava is preparing for climate changeÍ also includes a small projects grant scheme for support of sustainable drainage systems.The benefits of the project and related sub-projects are difficult to directly express in terms of money. Financial benefits are for example related to less damage caused by flooding during expected intense rainfalls, and better health conditions leading to less medical and societal costs for vulnerable people during heat-waves by providing areas with shade. Apart from climate change aspects, green spaces in general contribute to well-being. In addition, the cooperation among project partners and exchange of experience and knowledge that are built up during this project will pave the way for future projects to implement the Adaptation Action Plan.

NBS Implementation context
Location Bratislava (Slovakia)
Status (from - to) Project delivered (2014-2017)
NBS Scale Object (buildings, streets, squares, etc.) Neighbourhood
NBS Impacts scale Object (buildings, streets, squares, etc.) Neighbourhood City
Urban density/ Soil consumption High (dense city center, etc.)
NBS Typology

NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
NBS Stakeholders & Governance

Bratislava consists of 17 independent city districts and the Bratislava City Office provides overall coordination. Apart from the city districts, cooperation was sought with the Bratislava Regional Conservation Association, Bratislava Water Company, City Committee of Slovak Nature and Landscape Conservation Union, City Forest in Bratislava, Comenius University in Bratislava, Nature Sciences Faculty to involve them in the plans. The Norwegian partner COWI was involved because of its experience in the field and to underline the spirit of the EEA Grants regarding international cooperation. • Bratislava City Office provides overall management and publicity of the project. The coordination of the ‘Bratislava is preparing for Climate Change’ project is done by a Steering Committee which consists of a chairman (the chief architect of the City) and a number of members, representatives of different departments of the Bratislava City Hall (i.e. departments of: strategy project management and financial resources, environment, territorial system coordination, social affairs, transport, infrastructure etc.). The Committee also includes representatives of scientific organizations (i.e. Geographical Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences and Comenius University in Bratislava) and non-governmental organizations. Depending on the needs of the sub-project under development, the relevant members of the steering committee meet. The steering committee also decides on the grant applications for private sustainable drainage systems. • City district Bratislava-Nové Mesto ‘New Town’ and City district Bratislava-Petržalka. Both city districts are responsible for analysing options to solve problems in their cadastral area and directly implement planned measures in their district. They are also responsible for the communication of the results achieved. During the strategy and action plan development, already existing relations and cooperation with other stakeholders have been further strengthened. The project is promoted through the city districts’ web page. • COWI, a consulting group which has more than 80 years of experience in the environmental protection sector. Their experience and knowledge has been a valuable asset in the project implementation, mainly in the engineering phase, the implementation of measures, communication and the exchange of experiences and the dissemination of project results. COWI has received budget for travelling to enable the cooperation with Bratislava and has provided assistance in problem solving and the establishment of future cooperation with other sectors in Norway. Other stakeholders are involved to transfer knowledge and to be able to implement mainstream adaptation measures into wider plans, such as on water and nature management: • Bratislava Regional Conservation Association (BROZ), an NGO focused on nature, landscape and environment conservation. As a project partner, this association contributes to the sustainable management of city forest area and to the development of a local system of ecological stability. • Bratislava Water Company, a joint stock company including also Bratislava City among its share-holders. It provides its professional services and technical assistance during sub- projects implementation. • Slovak Nature and Landscape Conservation Union (SZOPK), a NGO focused on nature, landscape and environment conservation. Its branch office located in Bratislava City participates in the project as legal entity. It promotes communication with the general public, local communities and it helps increase public awareness about the project. • City Forest Company in Bratislava. This company is incorporated in the Statute of Bratislava Forest Park. Some proposed measures are implemented in Bratislava Forest Park so the City Forest Company needs to be involved in the project. • Nature Sciences Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava. The university is an educational and scientific institution. It provides professional advice and methodical assistance for the Adaptation Action Plan.

Initial actors (Leaders) Governments Local government/municipality (Bratislava City Office)
Involved actors Governments Local government/municipality (Bratislava City Office, City district Bratislava-Nov_ Mesto ïNew TownÍ, City district Bratislava-Petr_alka),Community NGOÍs / CSOÍs / interest groups (Bratislava Regional Conservation Association, Slovak Nature and Landscape Conservation Union) Research institutions (Nature Sciences Faculty of Comenius University in Bratislava),Market Social enterprises / social entrepreneurs (COWI, Bratislava Water Company, City Forest Company)
Ecological scale Local scale green area City scale green networks
Governance model CLUSTER 5: Network Governance Collaborative governance
NBS Financial aspects

Total project costs for the whole ‘Bratislava is preparing for Climate Change’ project are €3.337.640, of which € 2.411.445 come from EEA Grants (financed by Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway and available to the 13 EU member countries as support to 5 priority sectors including Adaptation to Climate Change - Flood and Drought Prevention). The remaining € 926.195 comes from the Bratislava City office and the City Districts of Nové Mesto and Petržalka. The budget was divided over the partners according to their contribution to sub-projects and project management tasks. In particular, the stakeholders directly financially involved are: Bratislava City Office, City district Bratislava - Nové Mesto ‘New Town’ and City district Bratislava – Petržalka, COWI. Costs of the total project are management costs, publicity, small grants, and construction activities.

Global (estimated) cost of the project 1M€- 5M€ (€ 3.337.640)
Financing mechanism CLUSTER 1: Public financing,CLUSTER 2: Financial institutions EEA - European Economic Area
NBS Business Models Archetype
Technological Non applicable
Social Non applicable
Organisational Non applicable
NBS Success and limiting factors
Process enablers
Knowledge Generation of evidence Lesson learnt through implemented projects, Awareness Climate Change
Governance Process efficiencies Collaboration, Co-creation and participation Involvement of urban government
Economy De-risking Sharing risks Public de-risking strategies
Process inibitors
Knowledge -
Governance Institutional barriers Lack of coordination between city departments Bureaucracy and unsupportive legal frameworks
Economy -
IM Keywords
  • Collaborative governance

  • Local scale green area

  • City scale green networks

  • Public financing

  • EEA - European Economic Area

References European Environment Agency – EEA (2017). Financing urban adaptation to climate change. Report 2. Link: