Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Urban planning strategies, Parks and Gardens

Green ventilation corridors in Stuttgart

A short description of the NSB

Stuttgart’s location in a valley basin, its mild climate, low wind speeds, industrial activity and high volume of traffic has made it susceptible to poor air quality. In order to facilitate air exchange in the city - thereby enhancing the potential for cool air flow from the hills towards the urban areas on the valley floor - development on the valley slopes permitted to prevent air from moving through the city. So, based on the previous work in this area carried out by the City of Stuttgart since the 1980s and the in-house urban climatology department (in existence in the City of Stuttgart since 1938), a Climate Atlas was developed for the Stuttgart region in 2008, presenting the distribution of temperature and cold air flows according to the city’s topography and land use. Based on this information, a number of planning and zoning regulations are recommended that also aim to preserve and increase open space in densely built-up areas. The Atlas distinguishes eight categories of areas in this manner, and for each of them different planning measures and recommendations are provided. In addition to responding to local climate characteristics, the following principles form the basis for the planning recommendations included in the “Climate Booklet for Urban Development Online – Städtebauliche Klimafibel Online”: 1) vegetation should be placed to surround developments and larger, connected green spaces should be created or maintained throughout developed areas to facilitate air exchange; 2) valleys serve as air delivery corridors and should not be developed; 3) hillsides should remain undeveloped, especially when development exists in valleys, since intensive cold- and fresh-air transport occurs here; 4) saddle-like topographies serve as air induction corridors and should not be developed; 5) urban sprawl is to be avoided; 6) all trees growing in the urban core with a trunk circumference of more than 80 cm at height of 1m are protected with a tree preservation order. As a result of the implementation of the recommendations included in the Climate Atlas and Climate Booklet, over 39% of Stuttgart’s surface area has been put under the protection of nature conservation orders. As a result of greening actions, greenery covers more than 60% of the city.

NBS Implementation context
Location Stuttgart (Germany)
Status (from - to) Ongoing (since 2012)
NBS Scale City
NBS Impacts scale Neighbourhood City Regional
Urban density/ Soil consumption High (dense city center, etc.)
NBS Typology

NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
NBS Stakeholders & Governance

The Climate Atlas 2008 was developed in close collaboration between the Verband Region Stuttgart (the association of regional cities and municipalities) and the City of Stuttgart. The Section of Urban Climatology within the Office for Environmental Protection of the City of Stuttgart contributed with its specialist knowledge. The evaluation and processing of the data for drawing up of the basic material required to produce the maps were undertaken by an external specialist consultant. The City of Stuttgart emphasises the importance of public participation in greening strategies aimed at improving air quality and mitigation of the heat island effect. This is achieved through different strategies: • Since 1986, the City of Stuttgart has provided financial support to green about 60,000 square meters of roofs. • Since 1992, a scheme has been in place for Stuttgart residents to adopt a tree. Today some 182 caretakers have adopted almost 500 trees. They are responsible for watering the tree, reporting pest attacks, removing the leaf litter and fallen branches, and protecting the tree from dog fouling. The Mayor of the City of Stuttgart supports the city greening initiatives aimed at improving air quality and reducing temperatures.

Initial actors (Leaders) Governments Regional / national government Local government/municipality
Involved actors Governments Regional / nati government Local government/municipality
Ecological scale Local scale green area City scale green networks Regional scale green infrastructure
Governance model CLUSTER 1: Traditional public administration Hierarchical governance
NBS Financial aspects

The initiative was funded by the City of Stuttgart and the Verband Region Stuttgart. The funds are necessary to generate climatic data around which the Climate Atlas is produced.

Global (estimated) cost of the project -
Financing mechanism CLUSTER 1: Public financing
NBS Business Models Archetype
Technological Non applicable
Social Non applicable
Organisational Non applicable
NBS Success and limiting factors
Process enablers
Knowledge Information accessibility and sharing Knowledge platforms
Governance Process efficiencies Collaboration
Economy -
Process inibitors
Knowledge -
Governance -
Economy -
IM Keywords
  • Hierarchical governance

  • Local scale green area

  • City scale green networks

  • Regional scale green infrastructure

  • Public financing