Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Urban farms, Green roofs

The DakAkker

A short description of the NSB

On top of the Schieblock office building in the centre of Rotterdam the largest rooftop-farm in Europe is situated, the DakAkker (literally: “Rooftop cropland”). Here fruits, vegetables and herbs grown and honey bees are kept. The DakAkker functions as a test site to experiment with different ways of green-roofs and farming in the city (vegetables and honey are sold to restaurants in the neighbourhood); in particular (with Pompenburg Park and Hofplein green roof) it is one of the projects of the City Initiative The Luchtsingel and exhibition-site during the International Architecture Biennale 2012. Luchtsingel is a foundation that aims at making a better connection between the northern part of Rotterdam and the city centre. The project was created in April 2012 by Binder Groenprojecten and initiated by ZUS (Zones Urbaines Sensibles) and developed by ZUS in collaboration with the Rotterdams Milieucentrum (Environmental Centre Rotterdam). The DakAkker is a ‘smart’ roof able to store 60.000 litres of water in times of heavy rain fall. It has also a social function for local residents who can be volunteers in cooperation with the local environmental organization, Rotterdams Milieucentrum. Furthermore, the Dakakker offers employment in their restaurant (Op Het Dak) which is located in the same building. Workshops, activities, events, courses and guided tours are organized. Organizations can also rent the location for their own events. Lastly, children from primary schools in Rotterdam can visit the roof to learn about healthy food and green roofs.

NBS Implementation context
Location Rotterdam (the Netherlands)
Status (from - to) Project delivered (2012-2014)
NBS Scale Object (building, etc.)
NBS Impacts scale Object (building, etc.) Neighbourhood City
Urban density/ Soil consumption High (dense city center, etc.)
NBS Typology

NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
NBS Stakeholders & Governance

The DakAkker is constructed by Binder Groenprojecten after the design of ZUS (Zones Urbaines Sensibles) and developed together with the Rotterdam Environmental Centre (Rotterdams Milieucentrum). The green roof is a sub project of “Stadsinitiatief De Luchtsingel”, an initiative of the municipality of Rotterdam which enables realization of citizen’s project ideas. The DakAkker has also participated in the Internationale Architectuur Biennale (IABR). The project has been supported by a wide range of parties, amongst others the University for Applied Sciences in Rotterdam (Hogeschool Rotterdam), a real estate company (Codum), a bank (Rabobank Rotterdam), lottery (Nationale Postcode Loterij) and a social foundation (Stichting Bevordering van Volkskracht). The DakAkker is maintained and organized by a “rooftop farmer” from the Rotterdams Milieucentrum. The maintenance and education activities are organized together with many volunteers; at the moment, there is so much interest in the rooftop garden that a waiting list for volunteers is applied.

Initial actors (Leaders) Market Private sector (Foundation Luchtsingel)
Involved actors Governments Local government/municipality, Community NGOÍs / CSOÍs / interest groups CBOÍs / neighborhood communities Citizens,Market Private sector
Ecological scale Local scale green area
Governance model CLUSTER 2: New Public Management Public_private partnership (PPP)
NBS Financial aspects

The project is financed with the Stadsinitiatief (City initiative), a financial stimulation of Rotterdam municipality to promote new initiatives and citizen participation (actors are able to send their ideas and the best idea is chosen by means of a jury and votes from the residents of Rotterdam). The Dakakker is financed by Foundation Luchtsingel, the national lottery, Binder, a bank, a foundation for citizen initiatives and the municipality of Rotterdam.

Global (estimated) cost of the project -
Financing mechanism CLUSTER 1: Public financing,CLUSTER 3: Citizen inclusion Volunteering
NBS Business Models Archetype
Technological Non applicable
Social Non applicable
Organisational Re-purpose the business for society/environment Develop scale-up solutions (collaborative approaches)
NBS Success and limiting factors
Process enablers
Knowledge Generation of evidence Lesson learnt through implemented projects Collaboration Co-creation
Governance Process efficiencies Collaboration, Co-creation and participation Involvement of urban government
Economy Government support Public-private partnerships, Create conditions for new business models and finance schemes
Process inibitors
Knowledge Uncertainty Operational unknown, Technical inadequacy Lack of ready-to-apply scientific results, concepts and technologies
Governance -
Economy Budget constraints NBS not a priority
IM Keywords
  • Public_private partnership (PPP)

  • Local scale green area

  • Public financing

  • Volunteering

  • Re-purpose the business for society/environment

  • Develop scale-up solutions