Nature Based Solutions - Implementation Models Database

Green roofs and walls

European Federation of Green Roofs and Walls (EFB)

A short description of the NSB

Established in 1997, the European Federation of Green Roofs and Walls (EFB) has 16 national member associations (2017) and it is currently focused on the potential of implementation of EU Green Infrastructure Strategy in urban contexts. Members of EFB actively promote the use of green roofs and green facades throughout Europe; in particular they support the creation of additional national associations, they start building projects and organise expert field visits with focus on quality assurance issues, creation of guidelines and handbooks, development and establishment of norms.

NBS Implementation context
Location Europe
Status (from - to) Ongoing (since 1997)
NBS Scale • Object (building, etc.) • Neighbourhood
NBS Impacts scale • Object (building, etc.) • Neighbourhood • City
Urban density/ Soil consumption
NBS Typology

NBS Uban Challenges
Climate Issues Climate mitigation
Climate adaptation
Other 0
Urban water management and quality Urban water management and quality
Flood management
Other 0
Air Quality Air quality at district/city scale
Air quality locally
Other 0
Urban Space and Biodiversity Biodiversity
Urban space design
Urban space management
Other 0
Urban Regeneration and Soil Air quality at district/city scale
Other 0
Resource efficiency Food, energy and water
Raw materials
Other 0
Public health and well-being Acustic
Quality of life
Other 0
Environmental justice and social cohesion Environmental Justice: Recognition
Environmental Justice: Procedural Justice
Environmental Justice: Distributional Justice
Environmental Justice: Capabilities
Environmental Justice: Responsibility
Social Cohesion
Other 0
Urban planning and governance Urban planning and form
Governance in planning
Other 0
People Security Control of crimes
Control of extraordinary events
Other 0
Green economy Circular economy
Bioeconomy activities
Direct economic value of NBS
Other 0
NBS Stakeholders & Governance

Initial actors (Leaders) Governments • Semi-government organizations / institutions
Involved actors Governments • Semi-government organizations / institutions; Community • NGO’s / CSO’s / interest groups • CBO’s / neighborhood communities • Citizens • Research institutions; Market • Private sector
Ecological scale Local scale green area City scale green networks
Governance model CLUSTER 5: Network Governance • Adaptive governance
NBS Financial aspects

Global (estimated) cost of the project Non applicable
Financing mechanism CLUSTER 1: Public financing • ERDF • Cohesion Fund • EAFRD • LIFE – Climate action • Horizon 2020
NBS Business Models Archetype
Technological Substitute with renewable and natural processes Reducing environmental impact by substitution with renewable resources and natural processes
Social Encourage sufficiency Tackling sustainability from the perspective of sustainable consumption. On a systems level, this could reduce overconsumption, and hence material and energy throughputs
Organisational Develop scale-up solutions Scaling sustainability solutions to maximise benefits for society and the environment
NBS Success and limiting factors
Process enablers
Knowledge Generation of evidence • Research on benefits • Research on cost effectiveness; Collaboration • Networks ; Awareness • Ecological memory
Governance Process efficiencies • Action- thinking approach; Self- governance • Grassroots innovations and transition initiatives; Co-creation and participation • Cross sectorial spaces and partnerships • Co-production
Economy Government support • Provisioning of incentives to attract private investment • Removal of administrative barriers • Public-private partnerships ; Create conditions for new business models and finance schemes
Process inibitors
Knowledge Uncertainty • Operational unknown • Performance unknown; Technical inadequacy • Lack of ready-to-apply scientific results, concepts and technologies
Governance -
Economy Budget constraints • NBS not a priority • Lack of funding knowledge
IM Keywords
  • Adaptive governance

  • Local scale green area

  • City scale green networks

  • Public financing

  • ERDF

  • Cohesion Fund


  • LIFE – Climate action

  • Horizon 2020

  • Substitute with renewable and natural processes

  • Encourage sufficiency

  • Develop scale-up solutions

References EFB (European Federation Green Roofs and Walls) (2015). Greener cities in Europe. White paper 15